Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Modeling Books

I'm currently doing some research about drawing, since that is one of the most important steps in the doll making process. In the course of my search, I ran across a couple of books about modeling for sculpture. I found these at The Internet Archive.




Modelling and Sculpture. Albert Toft. 1911.

Biographical information about Albert Toft is available here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Toft




Modelling: a guide for teachers and students. Edouard Lanteri. 1902.

A biography of Edouard Lanteri can be seen here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edouard_Lanteri




Both of these books are about figurative sculpture, and are available for free download in PDF and other formats. They can also be read online. The book format choices are over on the left sidebar.



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Monday, August 30, 2010

Modelling Wax




How do I model with wax? What do I do when I pick up a doll part to work on?

Parts are built up rough on the armature with warm wax and a knife, spread like butter or cream cheese. In this very rough state, the parts have many slack surfaces.


Small coils of wax, or snakes of wax are shown behind this practice face.






When I refine a rough form, I hold it in my left hand, and hold my modelling tool (usually a paring knife) in my right hand. I'll also have a snake, or coil of wax about 2-3 inches long in my left hand, where the fingers meet the palm. That snake of wax is warmed by my hand. I use my right hand to pinch off small pieces of wax, which I press directly onto the form where they are needed. Then I carve and shave the wax with my knife.

I am constantly moving the form around, so it catches the light, looking at the profiles and the surfaces, so I can spot slack areas that need filling out. Slack areas make the piece dead. They don't have the curve of life filling them out. I also rely on touch to know where to add or subtract wax.

For defining a form, I usually outline it with a thin snake of wax, then fill in, and scrape/carve until it is smooth and looks good in the light. I take off very small amounts when I scrape or carve the wax with the knife - usually paper-thin or thinner.

If the wax gets too warm in my hands, I set it aside and work on another piece, or I put the warm piece in the refrigerator for awhile to cool down.

Thus, I work additively and subtractively at more or less the same time. I usually add more than I subtract. Each part is slowly refined, using this method of modelling.

Sometimes I make a major change that requires that I cut the cereal box cardboard armature. I use an X-Acto razor knife to slice through the cardboard I need to remove, usually making the slice under the surface of the wax, next to the cardboard, with the razor knife held at an angle. Then I remove the cardboard with a pair of hemostats, and fill in the thin void left by the cardboard with some wax. Excess wax is carved off with my modelling tool.

As I model the parts, I'm always checking both sides of the piece for symmetry, especially if it is a part that is supposed to be symetrical. Adding the same amount of wax to both sides is one way to keep the form symetrical.





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Sunday, August 29, 2010

Hollow Head




I've been putting various kinds of eyeballs in my practice faces, so today I hollowed out the BJD head, just in case I want to insert some 16mm eyeballs when I start working on her face. I also added some ears. Those ears may need to be moved, so they aren't stuck on very solid, yet.


























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Saturday, August 28, 2010

Wool Roving




Today, at the local Farmer's Market, I bought an ounce of wool roving. I'm thinking I can use it to practice making a doll wig.






I found a small bit of information about how Martha Armstrong-Hand made wigs for her BJDs.

Martha Armstrong-Hand preferred to hand-tie the wigs she made for her original dolls. She made her own wig cap a little bit bigger than she eventually needed since the cap gets smaller in the process because of a very slight puckering up as each hair is stitched into the cap. After a lot of trial and error, she found tying each strand to the wig cap worked best for her then was pleasantly surprised that she had independently discovered the exact tying technique used to hand-tie expensive wigs for adults. Yes, Martha laboriously sewed and then knotted each individual strand of silk thread into the wig cap! The end result was a wig which could be brushed and styled without fear of pulling hair out.[1]

Wigmaking is a site that explains how a human sized wig is made. This is their step-by-step guide about how it is done. A human sized wig, made from real human hair, requires from 30,000 to 40,000 knots, and takes about 60 hours to do. Tying the knots of hair in a wig is called ventilation. I'm so glad that the doll head for my BJD has an 8.5 inch circumference, not an 8.5 inch diameter.

I'm also finding some good doll wig making tutorials at Den of Angels.

A contemporary ball-jointed doll maker is a multimedia artist, and wig making is one of the skills of a doll maker. I will be practicing ventilation with the wool roving, but I have a stash of human hair, which I will use to make the final wig for my BJD.

[1] http://dollmaking.lotzstudio.com/lmak_dollhair2.html



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Friday, August 27, 2010

Dreams to Reality



In order to make the dream of creating a Ball-Jointed Doll a reality, a studio is needed. It doesn't have to be a fancy studio. No one should let the lack of a proper studio keep them from starting a doll. This is a view of my doll studio in the basement. One end of a buffet table is being used. All you need is a small corner with a desk and a light. A few simple tools, such as a penknife, chopsticks, and popsicle sticks can be used.






This is a view of the BJD Work In Progress (WIP).





Here is a view of some other doll parts, including a tiny BJD WIP strung with rubber bands. Old newspaper helps keep the mess under control.





The wax pot, a sculpture stand, and the usual clutter.





The mold making studio includes a sturdy formica topped table, scales, and mixing bowls. Plaster, clay and coddles are also used. A 5-gallon bucket with some water in it, is used for clean-up. Never put plaster (dry/set/wet) down the drain pipes!






Every day I do some work on my doll. Some days, it doesn't seem like much, but I know that something has been done. It all adds up!




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Thursday, August 26, 2010

Plaster Moldmaking 02




The very best plaster mold and model making book ever written.



Plaster Mold and Model Making.
Charles Chaney and Stanley Skee.
NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1978.
ISBN: 0671764675




Whenever you need to tint a layer of a plaster mold, just squirt some of Mrs. Stewart's Liquid Bluing into the water before you add plaster. An older tinting agent was yellow ochre, but you can't buy it at the market easily. When making waste molds of the original clay, in traditional sculpture, the first layer of the waste mold was tinted.






Soap is one of the best plaster mold separators when making multiple piece plaster molds for slip casting. Tincture of Green Soap, or Hospital Soap is one of the best soaps to use.






The best soap applicator I've ever used was a one inch Japanese Hake brush.






I do a little work on my Ball-Jointed Doll every day. Some days, it is hard to see what I've done. Days like this seem to make the process take a long time. it's been awhile since I used my wax pot, yet it was taking up space on my work table where I could have doll parts within easy reach. So today I moved the wax pot out of the way, and put doll parts closer at hand. Every little bit helps! I'm hoping for some more rapid progress now. I'm thinking about plaster mold making, more and more. it is getting close to the time when I'll be making my hollow wax pieces for finishing the doll, so I can make the final plaster molds for slip casting.




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Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Hanano - Sculpted landscape doll head




Hanano is a Japanese doll maker who has a series of BJD sculpting videos on YouTube. This particular video shows him using a cutout cardboard profile to check the profile of the face on the head he is sculpting. He uses ball bearings for eyeballs. You can see a whole series of head sculpts in the background, on his work table. This video is 9 minutes 33 seconds in length.




Production of the head of BJD by Hanano






Japanese to English Google translation

関節人形の頭部原型制作風景

Sculpted landscape doll head


Watch this video on YouTube.




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Tuesday, August 24, 2010

Face 03




This is a photo of a practice face in progress. I started with a wax base face, and after mutilating it beyond recognition, I cut all the features off, scraped it down to a blank oval, and started over again.






When I started over, I got out my copy of Modeling The Head In Clay, by Margit Malmstrom and Bruno Lucchesi (New York: Watson Guptill, 1979), and referred to the step-by-step photos.

Bruno starts out with some wadded-up paper for a core, over which he fastens some slabs of clay, ending up, more or less, with a blank head shape. Then he rolls out a coil of clay and puts it on the blank face, shaping the coil of clay into the profile of a nose, mouth, and chin. He pushes in depressions for the eye sockets, and adds small coils of clay for the lips. It is fun to see the head of a young woman appear as bits and pieces of clay are added and modeled with his hands, fingers, and various tools; using both additve and subtractive sculpture modeling techniques.

Following his tutorial was very helpful. From the blank wax oval, I found the midway point and drew a line in the wax for the eyes with a needle tool. Above that, I drew another line to indicate the brow. Then I placed a wax coil on the face to indicate the profile of nose, mouth and chin. I used a tool to make depressions for the eyes, then rolled little balls of wax for the eyeballs. Small coils of wax were added for the lips. A small ball of wax was pressed on for the chin.

I'm still trying to find the face I want to use for my BJD. It may take awhile. The face is one of the most important parts of the doll, so I want to get it right.




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Monday, August 23, 2010

Doll Patents




There was an interesting post made on the Enchanted forum about the use of spring-tensioning for stringing porcelain dolls. Martha Armstrong-Hand uses spring-tensioning for the dolls she makes in her book, Learning To Be A Doll Artist. Marina Bychkova uses spring-tensioning in her porcelain dolls, and she cites Martha's book. Doll makers who are followers of Marina Bychkova, use spring-tensioning in their porcelain dolls.

The poster at Enchanted said that springs have been used for tensioning dolls for a long time now; that they weren't invented by Martha Armstrong-Hand, and he cited a doll maker by the name of Albert Schoenhut who patented such a system in 1911. Being the curious doll maker that I am, I used Google Patents to search for Albert Schoenhut, and sure enough, found his January 17th, 1911 Patent No. 982,096. Click on the image to enlarge it.









Albert Schoenhut wasn't the only one who patented a spring-tensioning system for dolls, and if you'll follow the lists of citations and references at Google Patents, you can find plenty more.

I ran across the web page of yet another porcelain doll maker the other day, by the name of Patita, and she is applying for a Patent for her spring-tensioning system. Here you can find a summary of the process she uses to make her porcelain dolls.




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Sunday, August 22, 2010

Ankle Joints



These are the two types of ankle joints I'm thinking about.





This is what the lower legs look like at the ankle joint.





This is a shot of the lower legs at the ankle, without the feet.





The more I mess around with these joints, the more convinced I am to Keep It Simple. I will probably decide to use the ankle joint style of the right leg for this first 60cm BJD.




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Saturday, August 21, 2010

BJD Wig 01




I found this bit about how Martha Armstrong-Hand made a doll wig:

Martha-Armstrong Hand preferred to hand-tie the wigs she made for her original dolls. She made her own wig cap a little bit bigger than she eventually needed since the cap gets smaller in the process because of a very slight puckering up as each hair is stitched into the cap. After a lot of trial and error, she found tying each strand to the wig cap worked best for her then was pleasantly surprised that she had independently discovered the exact tying technique used to hand-tie expensive wigs for adults. Yes, Martha laboriously sewed and then knotted each individual strand of silk thread into the wig cap! The end result was a wig which could be brushed and styled without fear of pulling hair out.

@ Hand Tied Wigs.




While I haven't gotten to the point of making a wig for my BJD yet, I was told that she will probably wear a 8 or 9 wig, judging from her head diameter. Her head actually measures 8.5 inches around the hair line. Whenever I come across a BJD wig making tutorial, I'm bookmarking it. Wig making will come after my BJD has been finished.

Today I added wax to the back of the upper torso. For some reason, this is one part that I have not paid very much attention to, so far, and it was still very rough. It is looking much better now.

I've been meaning to take some photos of the feet and ankles, but haven't done so yet. Right now, the ball joints and ankle joints of the feet are different. I'm trying to decide which one I want to use. I'm hoping to get some photos up tomorrow, so they can be seen.




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Friday, August 20, 2010

Stringing a Porcelain Ball-Jointed Doll




Today I was fiddling with the ankle ball joints and the legs, trying to figure out what I want to do. This is my first 60cm BJD, so I always have some decisions to make. However, because it is the first BJD, I don't have any past BJD making experiences to draw from. I just have to make some educated guesses.

Some questions about how Martha Armstrong-Hand did the stringing on her porcelain dolls came up in a forum today. This is a photo of how Martha used pins, S-hooks, steel springs, and swivels to do the tensioning on her porcelain ball-jointed dolls.






I made this diagram to try and make Martha's stringing method a little easier to understand.



Besides designing the ball-joints, stringing a porcelain BJD is the other technical hurdle that must be solved. While I don't think that my BJD, when it is cast in doll composition slip, will need steel springs for tensioning, I still find it interesting.

The best guide for understanding and designing ball-joints is twigling's Zen & The Art of Articulating Dolls by Using Ball Joints.




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Thursday, August 19, 2010

Martha Armstrong-Hand's Method




UPDATE EDIT: See Martha Armstrong-Hand's Method at Woodland Earth Studio.
Also see: FREE Step-By-Step Porcelain BJD Making Tutorial






Learning to be a doll artist : an apprenticeship with Martha Armstrong-Hand.
Martha Armstrong-Hand.
Livonia, MI : Scott Publications, c1999.
ISBN: 1893625044




This book is no longer available, yet it is recommended by many doll makers.

As I understand it, the procedure in the Armstrong-Hand book involves:

1. building an armature,
2. sculpting first in oil clay,
3. making a plaster mold of that sculpt
4. pour in carving wax
5. refining the wax sculpt
6. and then making the final mold.




I have heard from another doll maker that Martha's book really isn't that useful for making a ball-jointed doll? For example, Martha really does not discuss how to make the ball-joints; instead, she says to follow a trial and error approach. The doll maker said that Martha's book is really good for mold making. I also understand that Marina Bychkova and other porcelain doll makers use the metal spring tensioning technique from Martha's book.

I have found bits and pieces of Martha's book, here and there. For example, here is Martha's recipe for her carving wax (Thanks JayneM):

This is the carving wax recipe that is poured into molds to make a wax doll:

This mixture is:

28.35 gm = 1.0 oz

900 grams paraffin 900 g = 31.7465 oz
900 grams microcrystalline 900 g = 31.7465 oz
1800 grams industrial talc 1800 g = 63.4931 oz
200 grams beeswax and 200 g = 7.05479 oz
200 grams carnauba wax 200 g = 7.05479 oz

1 oz = 0.0625 lbs

31.7465 oz paraffin 31.7465 oz = 1.9841562500000003 lbs
31.7465 oz microcrystalline 31.7465 oz = 1.9841562500000003 lbs
63.4931 oz industrial talc 63.4931 oz = 3.96831875 lbs
7.05479 oz beeswax 7.05479 oz = 0.44092437500000004 lbs
7.05479 oz carnauba wax 7.05479 oz = 0.44092437500000004 lbs

I added some extra weight conversions in there.
That recipe makes about 8.80 lbs of wax!




I've found several photos of pages from Martha's book. This one is a closeup of the dolls.






This one shows about how large the dolls are, with Martha sitting in the background.






This one shows a finished doll, with wig, clothing and shoes; all of which are detailed in her book.






This picture shows the number of doll parts.






This is a diagram of how she strings a doll. Evidently, from what I've been able to pick up from various doll forums, she uses wire, swivels, and springs in her doll tensioning technique. Marina Bychkova and other porcelain doll makers also use this, or a similar technique.






The other interesting bit I've found is a listing of the Table Of Contents from her book:

Table of Contents
Learning To Be A Doll Artist

About the Author
Introduction

Chapter 1 Ideas and Plans.
From Dream to Reality;
Developing an Idea;
Choosing a Medium;
Why I Work in Porcelain;
Determining Size.

Chapter 2 Drawing.
Why Do we Draw?
Drawing a Human Figure;
Putting the Measurements on Paper;
Outlining the Drawing;
Refining the Drawing.

Chapter 3 Making the Armature.
Sizing the Armature;
Choosing the Materials;
Shrinkage Chart of Sculpting Material;
Constructing the Armature;
Supporting the Armature.

Chapter 4 Modeling.
Tools and Materials;
The Modeling Process;
Getting Ready to Make the Molds.

Chapter 5 Mold Making.
Tools and Materials;
Making a Rough Shell Mold;
Casting Words of Wisdom.

Chapter 6 Mold Design.
Principles of Mold Design;
Keys;
The Spare.

Chapter 7 Making Molds for Porcelain Slip Casting.
Special Tools for Porcelain Casting;
Making the Mold for a Porcelain Cast;
Cleaning, Drying, and Trimming the Molds;
Mold Repair.

Chapter 8 Wax Work.
Making Your Own Wax;
Making a Wax Cast;
Wax Work: Setting Up the Work Space;
Improving Your Forms.

[8-page color photo gallery of Martha Armstrong-Hand dolls.]

Chapter 9 Body Works.
The Decision to Make Joints;
Conditions for Moving and Posing;
Designing Joints That Work.

Chapter 10 Stringing Design.
Stringing Material;
Designing the Stringing System;
How It All Works.

Chapter 11 Casting in Porcelain.
History of Porcelain;
Some Chemistry and Physics (Ingredients and Transformation);
Casting;
Tools.

Chapter 12 On Kilns and Firing.
Parts of a Kiln;
Choosing Your Own Kiln;
Loading the Kiln;
Controlling the Temperature;
Firing.

Chapter 13 Porcelain Painting.
Tools and Materials;
Choosing a Brush;
Brush Glossary;
Setting Up a Painting Space;
Step-By-Step Face Painting;
The Art of Face Painting;
Things to Remember.

Chapter 14 Stringing Production.
Lining the Joints;
Setting Up for Metal Work;
Preparing and Fastening the Bars;
Connecting the Legs to the Body;
Attaching the Upper Body;
Assembling the Arms;
Fastening the Extremities.

Chapter 15 Hair and Wigs.
My Adventures With Wigs;
Directly Attached Hair;
Fur on Leather;
Conventionally Manufactured Wigs;
Making Your Own Wig;
A Doll Hairstyling Salon.

Chapter 16 Clothing Design.
[General Remarks];
Finding the Right Fabric;
Creating Patterns;
Of Sewing Machines and Sewers.

Chapter 17 Shoes.
Tools and Materials;
A Five-Step Process
(The Last,
the Upper,
the Soles,
Shaping the Upper to the Last,
Joining the Upper and Outer Sole);
The Reward.

Chapter 18 Accessories.

Chapter 19 Display.

Glossary of Ceramics Terms.
Recommended Books.
Suppliers.




That's it. That's all I have.




My curiosity about Martha's Method extends to curiosity about how far she takes a sculpt in oil clay, before she makes the first molds, which she pours her carving wax into. Then, how much further are the waxes sculpted? Is most of the sculpt done in oil clay, then the finishing and smoothing done in wax, along with refining the joints (which might hold up better and be more precise in wax than in oil clay).

It is so frustrating not to be able to borrow Martha's book from a library. This is one of those rare instances where a book is completely unavailable. I am loathe to spend several hundreds of dollars on a book that was selling for $17.95 at the end of 2009. Even if I had several hundreds of dollars to spend on an $18 book, there currently aren't any copies available for any price! That is what is so frustrating.

Frustration aside, knowing Martha's Method, and having her Table of Contents from her book available, as well as having most of the needed skills to make a doll, I figure that I can make a BJD, even though I don't have an actual copy of her book.

I do have a copy of Yoshida Ball-Jointed Doll Making Guide, as well as several other wonderful tutorials that completely detail the making of a BJD, although none of them use Martha's Method. The intriguing thing to me, about Martha's Method is, the way she first models the doll in oil clay, over an armature, then makes a first set of molds, casts carving wax into the molds, finishes the doll parts in carving wax, then makes a second set of molds from the finished wax doll parts, for casting the porcelain slip.

I'm currently working on a 60cm BJD in brown microcrystalline wax. However, I've skipped making a wire armature over which I modeled oil clay. I made some sketches on graph paper, then enlarged the sketch I liked the best onto poster board (6mm=15mm). That is my working drawing. Using the working drawing, I traced front and side views of each part, and transferred those views to cereal box cardboard. After cutting out the cardboard profiles, I slotted them together and filled them in with warm wax, using a broad bladed knife. Thus, all my dolls parts have been roughed out relatively quickly, with positive profiles. The rough doll took very little time to create. Since then I have been filling and smoothing the rough work, but still haven't spent any time sculpting detail.

My plan is to make a first set plaster molds when I have all the rough wax parts smoothed. Then I'll cast wax into the plaster molds to make hollow parts. If I use a mix of brown wax and paraffin, those hollow parts should be strong enough to string very loosely, so I can develop the joints. I am planning to do the doll sculpt on those wax parts. When the sculpt is finished, and the parts fit good, then I'll do a final smoothing and make my plaster molds for slip casting. That is how I am using wax to make a doll.

Still, I am consumed with curiosity about Martha's Method. It is mostly because I cannot access her book that I want to see it so badly, or at least learn her actual method. Isn't that how it always is? I always want something I cannot have.




Today I worked on ankle ball-joints. Each ankle joint is different at this time. I'm trying to decide which ankle I like the best. I have to do this before I can make plaster molds for the leg that I am going to use to make a mold to test the shrinkage of the doll composition slip.




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Wednesday, August 18, 2010

Feet Updated




I try to do some work on the BJD every day. Here is what the feet are looking like after some cutting away of wax around the ball joint, and some adding and modelling of wax, especially around the toes. They are slowly taking form.






I did some reading in the Yoshida Style Ball-Jointed Doll Making Guide about how he attaches the feet and hands to his dolls. According to his book, he cuts the slot in the ball joint, then he drills a hole for a wire which will attach to the terminal hook. He cuts the wire short, so it won't show, then glues it in place. An S-hook is attached to the wire which is glued in the ball joint of the wrist or the ankle. The S-hook is attached to the elastic.




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Tuesday, August 17, 2010

New BJD Book

A new Japanese BJD book will be coming out on the 27th of August.

Here is the Google translation of the page, from Japanese to English.

It looks like it is reasonably priced. 1890 Yen is less than $25.00 USD (as of today).

Here are some teaser pix from the Japanese Amazon site (Click on any image to enlarge it):




The Cover.






Parts of the Doll.






Two views of the knee joint.



Thanks to Aliciea at The Joint for pointing to this book!




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Monday, August 16, 2010

Plaster Moldmaking 01




Today I worked on the feet of the BJD for awhile, then I began organizing my checklist for plaster mold making. It has been a long time since I've made a multiple piece plaster mold for slip casting, so I needed to do some research.

A one piece plaster push mold is very simple. It doesn't need to fit with another mold piece, so no registration keys are needed. Nor is any mold separator needed, because there is no second mold half. The important thing to remember about making a plaster push mold is that the model should have no undercuts that would lock it into the mold. Here is the one piece plaster push mold for the base faces I'm working on.





Things get more complex when more than one mold piece is being made. First of all, the model needs to be embedded halfway in a clay bed. The halfway point is called the parting line. There can be no undercuts. Remember that undercuts will lock the model into the mold, so likewise, a casting would also be locked into the mold, if there are undercuts. In the following photo of a two-piece plaster mold, note that the wax leg is embedded halfway into one half of the mold. If the first piece of the mold were being made, this half of the mold would be made of clay. Note the three little hemispheres on the mold halves. These are registration keys. Registration keys are needed to align the multiple pieces of the mold. In this mold, the slip or wax is poured through the bottom of the foot. A third piece of the mold, called a spare is missing. The spare provides a reservoir of extra slip to feed the casting when it is thickening on the walls of the mold. Without a spare, I had to continually keep the casting topped-off by pouring more slip or wax into the bottom of the foot. A mold spare is a good thing to have.





In this photo, a six piece plaster mold is shown. Note the two plaster plugs for the shoulder sockets. There are also two plaster plugs for the hip sockets.





Here you can see the plaster pieces for the shoulder and hip sockets a little better. Is there anything missing in this mold? Look and see if you can find the missing thing.





Here, the other hip socket plaster plug has been moved away from the model. Did you find the missing thing yet? Where are the registration keys? Well, there aren't any carved registration keys in this mold. It is difficult to tell from the photo, but there is enough curvature of the mold to act as a registration key.





Don't forget to put registration keys in multiple piece molds! It is probably a good idea to always do it, even if it isn't absolutely necessary. There are many different ways to put registration keys in the mold. I may have used a coin to carve the registration keys here.






Besides plaster and clean water, it is very handy to have a sealer, such as Orange Shellac and some Denatured Alcohol for cleaning the shellac brushes on hand when making plaster molds. The brand name does not matter. Use whatever brand is available to you. Once a surface has been sealed, it can be coated with several layers of mold separator. A good mold separator for a plaster mold for slip casting is a 50/50 solution of water/soap. I'll give more details about sealers and separators when I make the plaster molds.






Never pour plaster into the drain pipes. Never. Always have a big bucket with some water in it for cleaning the mixing bowls, brushes, spatulas, stirring sticks, and other tools. Wash your hands off in the bucket as well. Plaster in a drain pipe is a clogged drain.





Some of the tools you will need for making plaster molds are a scale, some clean mixing bowls, a spatula, brushes, registration carving tools, and a nice clean table to work on! I use this Formica covered table to make molds on. The table should be level.





This is a plaster mold making coddle. It is made from 1x4 inch pine that has been sealed with Orange Shellac. An angle bracket has been screwed onto one end, which makes it adjustable.





This is a better picture of the coddles, showing the angle bracket on the end of each piece of pine.





I am planning to make a multiple piece plaster mold of the leg that I have been working on. I will use the mold to cast some CompoBell doll composition slip into to check for shrinkage, and other things.




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