Friday, November 30, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 23




On this leg hole I was able to remove a larger piece in the beginning, saving me a lot of wax whittling time. Click on any image to enlarge it.




I whittled the rest of the leg hole out with my paring knife.






I also drilled a pilot hole in the neck. I really love working with my carving wax.






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Thursday, November 29, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 22




After all my research into designing ball joints, I still have not made up my mind how I want to proceed. When in doubt, do some work. As it turns out, I have plenty of work to do on the carving wax doll parts.

The first thing I am going to do is open up the leg holes in the torso. I start by drilling a pilot hole with a 1/4 inch drill bit. Click on any image to enlarge it.






Then I use a 1/2 inch drill bit, and open the holes up more.






Finally, I use a jeweler's alcohol burner to heat the blade of my paring knife, and open the hole up even more.






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Wednesday, November 28, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 21




I found some very good advice about how to make ball joints in Ryo Yoshida's book, Yoshida Style Ball Jointed Doll Making Guide (2006). Here are some excerpts from pages 44 to 47, with the English translations of the Japanese captions. Even though the step-by-step photo sequences are very good, they are so much more useful with English captions. I have underlined what I consider to be the important points. Here, the important thing to note is that the knees and elbows are cut in the center of the knees and elbows. Click on any image to enlarge it.






The knee is cut in the center of the knee, the elbow is cut in the center of the elbow, and the ankle is cut in the center of the ankle.






The size of the balls is more important than getting the cutting lines in the right place. Here he makes a distinction between balls that follow the line of the body, such as at the hips, ankles, shoulders, and wrists; and balls that  move towards the inside of the body, such as at the elbows and knees. These balls that move toward the inside of the body are slightly smaller.






This part describes making a single joint. A double joint is made differently.






At this point in the process, the parts are tested against each other to see if any adjustments need to be made.






The shapes of the sockets are adjusted to fit the balls.






The edges of some sockets are thin, especially if the ball follows the line of the body; while the edges of other sockets are thicker, for balls that move towards the body, and are smaller. This is an interesting way to make custom balls for the doll.






In both the knee and elbow joints, the ball fits inside the joint, and is mostly hidden.






Details for the neck, hips, shoulders, and wrists are described here.






Details about the wrists and ankles are described here.






The center line of the joint is the center line of the ball !!! This may very well be the best advice of all. Balance is very important.






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Tuesday, November 27, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 20




I went way back into the archives and found some diagrams of knee joints. In this diagram, the difference between a deep socket and a shallow socket is illustrated. There is more range of motion with a shallow socket. Click on any image to enlarge it.






This diagram shows a single jointed knee with a shallow socket.






In order for the knee to bend at 90 degrees, the leg behind the ball would have to be cut deeper.






If stops are made in the knee joint, they can be designed on the outside of the form. The inside of all slip cast forms are smooth, and follow the mold walls, which define the outside of the forms.






This is a diagram of a more conventional single knee joint, with the legs cut at a 45 degree angle in the back, so the leg can bend at 90 degrees. The leg pivots around the center of the ball. In this diagram, the elastic is the green line, and the red line is the slot in the ball.






This is another diagram of a conventional single knee joint with a knee notch in the front, to keep the leg from rotating when standing. This was a problem I had with Carving Wax Test Doll.






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Monday, November 26, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 19




The legs are going to have single-jointed knees. Double-jointed knees allow the doll to kneel, or to sit on the heels, but I do not plan on having any poses that need that amount of flexibility. The top of the upper leg will have a ball attached, which will fit into a socket in the hip. The top of the lower leg will have a ball which will fit in a socket in the bottom of the upper leg. The foot will have a ball which will fit in a socket in the bottom of the lower leg. Click on any image to enlarge it.



The knee joints will need to have stops to keep them from twisting when the doll is standing. That was the main problem with Carving Wax Test Doll.




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Sunday, November 25, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 18




The hips will need to have some rather large diameter balls to fit the tops of the upper thighs. I have made some measurements, and it looks like the balls will be almost three inches in diameter. Click on any image to enlarge it.






There are three basic ways that the hips can be designed. I am showing two of the ways in the diagram below. The third way is to have the balls attached to the lower torso. In Nº 1 below, the hip socket faces forward, and is slanted from the back to the front at about a 45 degree angle. In Nº 2 below, the hip socket is slanted at about a 45 degree angle from the crotch out to the side of the doll. The way that I cut the oil-clay legs from the oil-clay torso are closer to Nº 1 than Nº 2, and I think that is probably the way that I will make the hips. However, I am also considering Nº 2.






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Saturday, November 24, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 17




Arms can be single-jointed or double-jointed at the elbows. I am choosing to make single-jointed arms for this doll. Each arm has a ball at the top of the upper arm. The bottom of the upper arm is a socket. There is also a ball at the top of the lower arm. The bottom of the lower arm is a socket. The top of the hand has a ball. Click on any image to enlarge it.






I may have to do some slight adjustments at the wrists and the upper arms, so the balls will fit the sockets.



Balls and sockets do not have to be perfectly round. For example, the wrists may have balls that are more oval shaped, to fit the bottoms of the lower arms, which are more oval shaped.




This is a single elbow joint. It only allows a 90 degree bend at the elbow, but it looks more natural.






This is a double elbow joint. The double elbow joint allows the arm more range of motion at the cost of making the arm look awkward when it is flexed. A double joint has two balls joined together in a peanut-like shape.






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Friday, November 23, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 16




This is probably the simplest and most common shoulder joint. This is the shoulder joint design that I am going to use. The green line represents the socket. Click on any image to enlarge it.






This type of design has a floating cup that rests in a socket in the torso, and also has a socket in it for the arm ball. This type of joint allows a larger range of motion. This type of shoulder joint is discussed in Martha Armstrong-Hand's book, Learning To Be A Doll Artist.






This type of shoulder joint has the balls as part of the torso. Those balls sit in sockets in the top of the upper arm.






This illustration shows the shoulder joint design in diagram #2 above.






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Thursday, November 22, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 15




There are several ways to joint the torso. In the diagram below, the torso is one piece, with the neck attached. There are sockets for arms and legs.  The green line represents the socket. This is the type of torso design featured in Ryo Yoshida's book, Yoshida Style Ball Jointed Doll Guide (2006). Click on any image to enlarge it.






A popular torso design is to divide the torso under the breasts. The hips and midsection are one piece, with the top of the midsection made into a ball. The upper torso is one piece with the socket at the bottom. The green line represents the socket.






Similar to the design above, this torso is divided at the bottom of the ribcage. This is a more realistic and natural division because the ribcage can be considered to be a solid form that cannot be bent. This is the design that I will use for my doll. The green line represents the socket.






In this design, the upper torso and midsection are one piece. The hips are another piece, with the socket at the top of the hips. The green line represents the socket.






This three piece torso design has a good range of motion. The midsection has a ball at both the top and the bottom. The top ball fits in the socket at the bottom of the upper torso. The bottom ball fits in the socket of the hips. This design is used as an example for making a porcelain BJD in Martha Armstrong-Hand's book, Learning To Be A Doll Artist (1999). The green line represents the socket.






This is a one piece torso that has no sockets. At the shoulders and hips there are balls. The shoulder balls fit the upper arms. The hip balls fit the upper legs. This torso may also be divided in the same ways as described above. The socket shown here is in the head, and it fits the ball at the top of the neck. The green line represents the socket.



It is easy to see that there are many choices that can be made when designing the torso. Many different combinations may be made. One thing to keep in mind when designing the torso is where the spare is going to be located, for pouring slip into the mold.

Happy Thanksgiving to those of you who observe it.




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Wednesday, November 21, 2012

08 Joint Design Nº 14




This is a little envelope drawing of a simple diagram of BJD ball and socket joints. All of these are single joints. The balls are colored red, and the sockets are colored green. There are many other ways to joint a doll. For example, the elbows and knees may be double jointed, and the torso may have three parts. I am currently studying ball joint design, and am trying to make up my mind about which types of joints I want. This is a research phase in the development of the doll. When I am not sure what to do next, I do some research. Click on any image to enlarge it.



I previously posted some diagrams of Ball-Jointed Doll Parts on August 4, 2010.




Starting with the head and neck, there are basically three ways to make the joints. The first design, illustrated below, shows the torso and the neck as one piece, ending with a ball at the top of the neck. This design requires one socket in the head. The green line represents the socket.



This is the design that I am probably going to use for my BJD. I do not feel that my doll needs the range of motion of a contortionist or a gymnast. This is the design I had in mind when I made the wire armature, and modeled the doll figure in oil-clay.




In this second design, the neck is a separate piece, with a socket in the head, and another one at the top of the torso. This design would allow a larger range of motion for the head, but there would be an extra joint and socket at the neckline. Some of Martha Armstrong-Hand's BJDs use this design. The green line represents the socket.






In this third design, the head and the neck are one piece, and the socket is at the top of the torso. This is a popular design with porcelain dolls that have a shoulder plate over a cloth body. The green line represents the socket.






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